Peru has three regions: the coast, desert area in which 40 valley, irrigated by the rivers that run down the occidental side of the Andes, are the seats of the main cities in the region, like Lima, the capital city, Trujillo, Ica and Tacna.
The sierra, over the Cordillera de los Andes mountain chain running from south to north. Its highest peak is Huascaran with 6,768 m/ 22,204 ft. a.s.l. Cusco, the capital of the Inca Empire was established within this region.
The jungle, in the middle of which runs the torrential Amazon River, it has a tropical weather and its flora and fauna are considered to be the richest in the world.
Peru is only one of the three Latin American countries which have their largest population segment consisting of indigenous Amerindians, with around 45% of all Peruvians classified as such. Most are found in the southern Andes, though a large portion are also to be found in the southern and central coast due to the massive internal labor migration from remote Andean regions to coastal cities, especially Lima, during the past four decades. While the Andes are the "heart" of indigenous Peru, the country's Amazonian region represents nearly 60% of Peruvian national territory and harbors a wide variety of indigenous groups that is rivaled only by its biodiversity. These tropical lowlands, however, are sparsely populated.
Almos half of all Peruvians are Amerindian, or 45 percent of the total population. The two major indigenous or ethnic groups are the Quechuas (belonging to various cultural subgroups), followed by the Aymaras, mostly found in the extreme southern Andes. A large proportion of the indigenous population who live in the Andean highlands still speak Quechua or Aymara, and have vibrant cultural traditions, some which were part of the Inca Empire, arguably the most advanced agricultural civilization in the world. Literally dozens of indigenous cultures are also dispersed throughout the country beyond the Andes Mountains and in the Amazon basin. Peru's Amazonian region is rapidly becoming urbanized. Important urban centers include Iquitos, Nauta, Puerto Maldonado, Pucallpa and Yurimaguas. This region is home to numerous indigenous peoples, though they do not constitute a large proportion of the total population. Examples of indigenous peoples residing in eastern Peru include the Shipibo, Urarina, Cocama, and Aguaruna, to name just a few.
At the national level, mestizos constitute the second largest segment of the population, at around 37% of the total population. The term traditionally denotes Amerindian ancestry, and most Peruvian mestizos are of this combination, but other lineages (most notably African) are also present, in varying degrees, in some segments of the mestizo population. Most mestizos (those which easily could be classified as pure Amerindian) are urban dwellers and can be seen in coastal cities of the north coast, where they show stronger Spanish inheritance, the central coast like Lima Region, Cajamarca Region, and also Arequipa Region. Around 15-20% of the population are whites or criollos, descendants of the colonial Spanish colonizers and other European nations. The majority of the whites live in the largest cities, concentrated usually the northern coastal citites of Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, and of course the capital Lima. The only southern city with a significant population is Arequipa. To the north Cajamarca and San Martin are also cities with a strong Spanish influence.
The remaining 3%-5% is constituted by Afro-Peruvians, Chinese Peruvians and persons of Japanese descent. The Afro-Peruvians, a legacy of Peru's history as an importer of slaves during the colonial period. Today also mulattos (mixed African and European) and zambos (mixed African and Amerindian) constitute an important part of the population as well, especially in Piura, Tumbes, Lambayeque, Lima and Ica regions. The Afro-Peruvian population is concentrated mostly in coastal cities south of Lima, such as that of those found in the Ica Region, in cities like Cañete, Chincha, Ica, Nazca and Acari in the border with the Arequipa Region. Another large but poorly promoted segement of Afro-Peruvian presence is in the Yunga regions, where sugarcane, lemon, and mango production are still of importance. Important communities are found all over the Morropon Province, such as in the city of Chulucanas. Yapatera is a community in the same city, as well as smaller farming communities like Pabur or La Matanza and even in the mountainous region near Canchaque. Further south, the colonial city of Zaña or farming towns like Capote and Tuman in Lambayeque are also important regions with Afro-Peruvian presence.
There is also a large presence of Asians, primarily Japanese and Chinese, that constitutes some 5% of the population, which in proportion to the overall population is the largest of any Latin American nation.
Peru has the second largest population of people of Japanese descent in Latin America after Brazil and the largest population of Cantonese descent in Latin America. Historic communities inhabited by people of Chinese descent are found throughout the Peruvian upper Amazon, including cities such as Yurimaguas, Nauta, Iquitos and the north central coast (Lambayeque and Trujillo). In contrast to the Japanese community in Peru, the Chinese appear to have intermarried much more since they came to work in the rice fields during the Viceroyalty and to replace the African slaves, during the abolition of slavery itself.
Despite the presence of Peruvians of Asian heritage being quite recent, in the past decade they have made significant advancements in business and political fields; a past president (Alberto Fujimori), several past cabinet members, and several members of the Peruvian congress are of Japanese or Chinese origin. Small numbers of Arab Peruvians, mostly of Lebanese and Syrian origin, also reside.
Small communities of other Europeans settled in Peru, usually are Spanish descent. Others are British, French, German, Greek, Armenian, Russian, Italian and Portuguese, but mainly settled in the cities and merged in the Latin American culture. Basques from both Spain and southwest France are notably numerous in Peru, who represent a large percentage of fishermen and shepherders in the country from its' colonial past and today, about 500,000 Peruvians may have Basque ancestors.
Most of Peru's population (about 40% percent) lives in the Costa (coastal area), while 36% live in the Sierra (the Andes) and only 12% in the Llanos or Amazon rainforest. Almost one third of the nation's population lives in the Lima and Callao Metropolitan Area. Lima is home to over 8 million Peruvians, one of South America's largest urban areas, includes the neighboring community of Callao that grown fast and expanded since the 1960s.
Socioeconomic and cultural indicators are increasingly important as identifiers. For example, Peruvians of Amerindian descent who have adopted aspects of Hispanic culture also are considered "mestizo". With economic development, access to education, intermarriage, and largescale migration from rural to urban areas, a more homogeneous national culture is developing, mainly along the relatively more prosperous coast.
Peru has two official languages--Spanish and the foremost indigenous language, Quechua. Spanish is used by the government and the media and in education and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin.
Peru´s distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a socioeconomic divide between the coast's mestizo-Hispanic culture and the more diverse, traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands.
The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional customs, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the mestizo-Hispanic culture.
Peru´s official languages are Spanish and quechua,according to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Amerindian languages such as Quechua, Aymara and other such indigenous languages in areas where they predominate. Today, Spanish is spoken by some 80.3% of the population, and is the language used by government, media, and in education and formal commerce. There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken.
According to official sources, the use of Spanish has increased while the knowledge and use of indigenous languages has decreased considerably during the last four decades (1960–2000). At the beginning of the 1960s some 39% of the total Peruvian population were registered as speakers of indigenous languages, but by the 1990s the figures show a considerable decline in the use of Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages, when only 28% is registered as Quechua-speaking (16% of whom are reported to be bilingual in Spanish) and Spanish-speakers increased to 72%.
For 2005, government figures place Spanish as being spoken by 80.3% of the population, but among Amerindian languages another decrease is registered. Of the indigenous languages, Quechua remains the most spoken, and even today is used by some 16.2% of the total Peruvian population, or a third of Peru's total indigenous population. The number of Aymara-speakers and other indigenous languages is placed at 3%, and foreign languages 0.2%.
The drastic decline in use and knowledge of indigenous languages is largely attributed to the recent demographic factors. The urbanization and assimilation of Peru's Amerindian plurality into the Hispanic-mestizo culture, as well as the new socioeconomic factors associated with class structure have given privilege to the use of Spanish at the expense of the Amerindian languages which were spoken by the majority of the population less than a century ago.
The major obstacle to a more widespread use of the Quechua language is the fact that multiple dialects of this language exist. The variations among these Quechua dialects are as pronounced as - for example - the differences between Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. Quechua, along with Aymara and the minor indigenous languages, was originally and remains essentially an oral language. Therefore, there is a lack of modern media which use it: for example books, newspapers, software, magazines, technical journals, etc. However, non-governmental organizations as well as state sponsored groups are involved in projects to edit and translate major works into the Quechua language; for instance, in late 2005 a superb version of Don Quixote was presented in Quechua.
The percentage of native speakers of Quechua who are illiterate has been decreasing lately, as 86.87% of the Peruvian population is literate. More encouraging, nationwide literacy rate of youth aged 15 to 24 years is 96,8%.
Under the 1993 constitution, primary education is free and compulsory. The system is highly centralized, with the Ministry of Education appointing all public school teachers. Eighty-three percent of Peru's students attend public schools at all levels, but over 15 percent (usually the upper-classes) attend private schools if their parents can afford to pay for the tuition.
Quechua is an oral language. In some cases, in rural areas and urban areas people do not speak Spanish and therefore do not know how to read or write.
Being the coast over the sub tropical area, its average temperature is between 14ºC / 57ºF and 27ºC / 80ºF. In the sierra the weather is cold and dry with a temperature between 9ºC / 48ºF and 18ºC / 64ºF. In the jungle it is very warm and humid and the temperature may range between 25ºC / 77ºF and 28ºC / 82.4ºF. Peru can be visited the whole year around.
The population in Peru reaches 27`219,264 people according to the latest census (2005). This year ( 2008 ), Peru has around 28`000.000 people. Because of the successive immigrations which have taken place for more than a hundred years, there are several ethnic groups co-existing in the country with the natives. The main are Caucasian, African - American and Asiatic -mainly Chinese and Japanese- who make a very peculiar ethnic combination which gives Peruvian people an uncommon charisma.
The official languages are Spanish and Quechua dialect, which along with the Aymara are still used by many people. There are many other dialects in the jungle.
Starting from July 1st, 1991 the official currency is the Nuevo Sol (S/.). But Peruvian people always say Sol or Soles instead of saying Nuevo Sol. There are S/.10, S/. 20, S/. 50, S/. 100, S/. 200 bills, and, S/. 0.05, S/. 0.10, S/. 0.20, S/.0.50, and S/. 1.00, S/. 2.00, and S/. 5.00 coins.
Peru has a cultural heritage of almost 20,000 years.
There are many testimonies of it, from the ancient cave paintings to the stone and mud-brick monuments left by the Chavin, Tiahuanaco, Mochica and Chimu cultures, as well as by the Incas. Part of this heritage is represented by the enigma and mysteries of the past, like in the Nazca lines.
During the colonial period which took place in Peru after its conquest by Francisco Pizarro, Spain also contributed to painting, sculpture and architecture as well as to gold and silver which works with several art expressions.
The symbiosis of the ancient cultures with the successive migrations which took place during the Republican period has made this an extraordinary country with music and folklore which, added to its natural attractions. Its modern life and its gastronomy, make Peru a very attractive tourist destination.
THE CURRENT PRESIDENT OF PERU IS PEDRO PABLO KUCZYNSKI
He was elected as president of Peru in 2016.
MAP OF PERU
LIM AIRPORTI n the Province of Callao, region of Lima is located the international airport Jorge Chavez. All the airline companies KLM , AMERICAN AIRLINES, DELTA AIRLINES, LAN AIRLINES and others arrive here.
Take a tour around Peru, Tours in Cusco, Puno, Machu Picchu, Paracas, LakeTiticaca, Nazca lines, Puerto Maldonado, Colca Canyon and many others.
Dances of our native origin, there are dances that are related to the agricultural work, hunting, and war. Two of the most representative Andean dances are the Wayno or Huayno and the Kashua. The Huayno is a “salon ball”. It is danced in couples and in closed spaces.
Huayno is a genre of popular Andean music, especially common in Peru and Bolivia. It is combination of traditional music of the rural folk in the area with popular urban dance music. High-pitched vocals are accompanied by a variety of instruments, including flute, harp, panpipe, accordion, saxophone, charangos, lute, violin, guitar, harmonica and mandolin. Huayno utilizes a distinctive rhythm, in which the first beat is stressed and followed by two short beats.
The Huayno is an important Andean genre of dance and music of pre-Hispanic origin and at present very wide spread among the Andean people. Huayno adopts diverse forms according to the local or regional traditions and certain forms it represents the popular adherence to the culture of the land. Huayno is an excellent example of typical Andean dance. People in the mountains Cusco, Ayacucho, Puno, Arequipa, Cajamarca, Junin, and other regions in the mountains dance huayno.
The dance begins with a man offering his arm to the women as an invitation for her to dance. Alternatively, he puts his handkerchief on the shoulder of the woman. Next, the partners walk along an enclosure, and finally they dance. The dance consists of an agile and vigorous stamping of the feet during which the man fallows the woman, opposite to front, touching her with his shoulders after having turned around, and only occasionally he touches his right arm to the left hand of his partner while both swing to the rhythm of the music. His movements are happy and roguish.
The musical rhythm consists of a base pentatónica from binary rhythm, structural characteristic that has allowed this genre to turn into the base of a series of hybrid rhythms, from the Chicha up to the Andean Rock. The instruments that intervene in the execution of the Huayno are the quena, the small guitar, the mandolin, harp and the violin.
In variants of the huayno there are typical bands which add instruments such as the trumpets, the saxophone or accordion.
The Kashua has a communal character and it is usually danced in groups in the country or open spaces. These songs are usually songs with very emotional lyrics.
Dances of ritual Character are the Achocallo, the Pinkillada, the Llamera (dance that imitates the Llama´s walk ), the Kullawada ( the spinner´s dance ), etc. Between the Hunting dances, it can be mentioned: the Llipi-puli and Choqelas. They are dances from the Altiplano related to the vicuña´s hunting.
There are some dances of war like the Chiriguano which has an Aymara origin, the Chatripuli that satirizes the Spanish Realist soldiers, and the Kenakenas a dance about the Chilian soldiers who occupied Peru diring the war of the Pacific in 1879. There are also Carnival dances. A Carnival is a western holiday that, in the Peruvian Andes, is celebrated simultaneously with the crops time. Many ruarl communities celebrate the youth´s initiation during these holidays with ancestral rites and dances.
Marinera is a dance of Peru. Marinera is a graceful and romantic couple´s dance that uses handkerchiefs as props. The dance is an elegant and stylized reenactment of a courtship. Traditional accompanient for the dance is proviced by a Cajon, guitar and bugles.
This is the most international know dance in Peru. This dance represents a man´s courting of a young woman. There are local variants of this dance in Lima and the other regions of the country.
Popular celebrations are the product of every town´s traditions and legends. These celebrations gather music, dances, meals and typical drinks. In addition to the religious celebrations like Christmas or Holy Week.
Festejo is a dance which is a mixture of various Afro-Peruvian dance culture, which dates to the 17th century, when large numbers of Africans came to Peru. The dance is from the central coast of Peru and it is usually performed by couples dress in colorful costumes with joyful body movements without physical contact. The celebration brings out the elegance, rhythm and high energy of this popular Peruvian dance. The music of Festejo dance has a leading vocalist and backing singers and it is played with native Peruvian musical instrument: "Cajon" (wooden box,) Cajita (small wooden box,) and Quijada de Burro (donkey's jaw.) and other instruments such as the Guitar, Congas, Tumba, and Bongó among others.
DANCE IN PERU AFRO-PERUVIAN
There are many places where you can see dances of Peru. Visit DAMA JUANA . It is a place where you will see lots of different dances of Peru. DAMA JUANA is situated in Lima downtown. Miraflores district. Write us to take you over there.
Peru has a province called Pisco and there people produce pisco.
Pisco (from Quechua: pisqu, little bird) is a liquor distilled from grapes (a brandy) made in wine-producing regions of Peru and Chile. It is the most widely consumed spirit in Peru, Bolivia and Chile.
The right to produce Pisco as an exclusive cultural commodity has been the centre of a dispute between Chile and Peru because it is produced and consumed by both Chileans and Peruvians, and both countries consider it their national drink.
The iconic cocktail in these countries is the pisco sour but Peru is the country were Pisco sour was born.
restaurants in lima
La Rosa Nautica
When choosing a restaurant, one of the things to consider is the cuisine - its quality, diversity and flavors. But you must also consider the atmosphere, the magic and exclusivity of the place you have chosen. La Rosa Náutica fulfills both of these demands to perfection.
Together with a group of professionals in gastronomy, the renowned peruvian chef Enrique Blondet creates the most complete menu of Peruvian and International specialties. In November 2001, his exquiste creations delighted the participants of the XI Iberoamerican Summit of Heads of State and Governments, including the King of Spain.
The restaurant's four dining areas, and its sophisticated bar "El Espigón" , rising from the midst of the ocean, allow the visitor to enjoy a magical experience, which can only be possible in a place of fantasy, capriciously constructed in the middle of the sea.
Because of this wonderful location, the horizon, especially at the crucial sunset hour, can be best appreciated through the large windows or ample terraces.
As you can see, the quality of the cuisine and bar, and the high level of service in a place with exquisite architecture, are the reasons that La Rosa Náutica is a five star restaurant, and the place of choice for world leaders in the business, social and political fields. Allow yourself to be led by our compass. Your spirit will be grateful.
Señorio de Sulco
This restaurant recreates the history—from pre-Inca to the present;of Peruvian cuisine in all its diversity. Typical dishes from the coast, sierra and jungle areas of Peru include the ají de gallina (spicy pepper chicken), papa a la huancaína (potatoes Huancaína) and lomo saltado (sauteed steak). Top the meal off, accompanied by gentle piano, with the traditional dessert suspiro a la limeña, a port and cinnamon-kissed delicacy. The restaurant is located at the Miraflores harbor, affording a lovely ocean view.
Peruvian cuisine is usually considered one of the most diverse in the world and is on par with French, Chinese and Indian cuisine. In January 2004, while at the Fourth International Summit of Gastronomy Madrid Fusion 2006, regarded as the world's most important gastronomic forum, held in Spain between January 17th and 19th, Lima was declared the "Gastronomic Capital of the Americas".
Thanks to its pre-Inca and Inca heritage and to Spanish, Basque, African, Japanese and finally Italian, French and Britain immigration (mainly throughout the 19th century), Peruvian cuisine combines the flavors of four continents. With the eclectic variety of traditional dishes, the Peruvian culinary arts are in constant evolution, and impossible to list in their entirety. Suffice it to mention that along the Peruvian coast alone there are more than two thousand different types of soups, and that there are more than 250 traditional desserts.
There are many restaurants specializing in Peruvian cuisine in many different cities throughout the world. There are here some examples of Peruvian dishes. The following are just a few of the many dishes which are generally popular with the Peruvians. Some of these originated in other parts of Peru but most are well known and can be found in some part of Lima.
Peruvian cuisine is considered one of the most diverse in the world and is on par with French, Chinese and Indian cuisine. In January 2004, The Economist said that "Peru can lay claim to one of the world's dozen or so great cuisines" , while at the Fourth International Summit of Gastronomy Madrid Fusión 2006, regarded as the world's most important gastronomic forum, held in Spain between January 17th and 19th, Lima was declared the "Gastronomic Capital of the Americas" .
Thanks to its pre-Inca and Inca heritage and to Spanish, Basque, African, Sino-Cantonese, Japanese and finally Italian, French and British immigration (mainly throughout the 19th century), Peruvian cuisine combines the flavors of four continents. With the eclectic variety of traditional dishes, the Peruvian culinary arts are in constant evolution, and impossible to list in their entirety. Suffice it to mention that along the Peruvian coast alone there are more than two thousand different types of soups, and that there are more than 250 traditional desserts.
There are many restaurants specializing in Peruvian cuisine in many different cities throughout the world.
Peru is considered an important center for the genetic diversity of the world's crops:
Maize (AKA corn), 35 varieties
Tomatoes, 15 species
Potatoes, 4,000 varieties. The International Potato Center, which goes by its Spanish name's initials (CIP short for Centro Internacional de la Papa) that is devoted to the investigation and genetic conservation of the potato, is located in Lima, Peru.
Sweet potatoes, 2,016 varieties
Peanuts are found as decorative pieces made of gold in several pre-Columbiam tombs. They were later taken by Spanish and Portuguese merchants to Africa. Thereafter peanuts were introduced in the American south by African slaves.
Fish, 2,000 species of fish, both freshwater and saltwater (more than any other country on Earth)
Fruit, 650 native species. It is also famed for its large number of species of bananas. The variety of climate itself can provide for the bringing of fruits from all the world.
From Peru, the Spanish brought back to Europe foods which would become staples for many peoples around the world.
Potatoes: Potatoes, originally from Peru, were considered livestock feed in Europe until French chemist Antoine-Augustin Parmentier began serving dishes made from the tubers at his lavish banquets. His guests were immediately convinced that potatoes were fit for human consumption. Parmentier's introduction of the potato is still discussed in Europe today.
Maize: Maize is native to all of Central and South America.
Tomatoes: Tomatoes were introduced to Europe from Latin America.
And many other food products.
Some plants that were cultivated by the ancient societies of Peru have now been rediscovered by modern Peruvians and are carefully studied by scientists. Due to the characteristics of its land and climate and due to the nutritional quality of its products, some Peruvian plants will play a vital role in the nutrition of the future: this is true for quinoa, which is an excellent source of essential amino acids, and kañiwa which appear to be and are prepared like cereals but are not cereals. Root vegetables such as maca and real cereals like kiwicha are also plants nutritionists are researching today.
For many of Peru's inhabitants, these foodstocks allow for adequate nutrition even though living standards are poor. The abandoning of many of these staples during the Spanish domination and republican eras has brought down nutritional levels in the country.
Some of these foodstocks have been used since 1985 by NASA for astronaut food, like quinoa, kiwicha and maca.
Peruvian cuisine is often made spicy by means of ají pepper, a basic ingredient. Some Peruvian chili peppers are not spicy but serve to give color to dishes. Rice often accompanies dishes in Peruvian cuisine, and the regional sources of foods and traditions give rise to countless varieties of preparation and dishes.
Fine Peruvian cuisine emphasizes the mix of colors and ingredients, in a dynamically growing restaurateur industry and trends lead by young and talented chefs.
The following are just a few of the many dishes which are generally popular with the Peruvians. Some of these originated in other parts of Peru but most are well known and can be found in some part of Lima.
Peru is a country that holds not just a variety of ethnic mixes since times ranging from the Inca Empire, the Viceroyalty and the Republic, but also a climatic variety that sometimes is not believed by outsiders: 28 of a possible 32 world climates. The mixing of cultures and the variety of climates differ from city to city so geography, climate, culture and ethnic mix determine the variety of local cuisine.
CUISINE OF THE ANDES (MOUNTAINS)
In the valley and plains of the Andes, the locals' diet continues to be based on corn (maize), potatoes, and an assortment of tubers as it has been for many hundreds of years. Meat comes from indigenous animals like alpacas and guinea pigs, but also from imported livestock like sheep and swine.
As with many rural cultures, most of the more elaborate dishes were reserved for festivities, while daily meals were simple affairs. Nowadays, the festive dishes are consumed every day, although they tend to be on the heavy side and demand a large appetite.
Cuy chactado - A dish more popular in the highlands is this meal of fried guinea pig. Often the indigenous women of the Peruvian Andes will raise the guinea pigs in their huts where they run around loose on the floors of the dwellings. Prior to consumption they can reach a surprisingly large size. Besides the use of guinea pigs as separate meals, they are often cooked in a Pachamanca with other meats and vegetables.
Pachamanca is a very special banquet in and of itself. Cooked all over the Andean region of Peru, is made from a variety of meats (including pork and beef), herbs and a variety of vegetables that are slowly cooked underground on a bed of heated stones. It demands skillful cooks to create and a large number of guests to consume. Because of its tedious preparation it is normally only done for celebrations or festivals in the Andes, though recent years have seen the appearance of many "campestre" restaurants outside Lima where urban families can escape to spend an afternoon in the fresh air eating pachamanca. Such as in Cieneguilla a good place to eat Pachamanca.
Olluquito con charqui is another typical Andean dish. Olluco is a yellowish tuber (Ullucus tuberosus) domesticated by pre-Inca populations, and is visually similar to colorful small Andean potatoes, but with a distinct crunchy texture when cooked. Charqui is the technique employed in the Andean highlands to cure meat by salting, then dehydration. The dish is a stew of finely diced ollucos with charqui pieces (traditionally alpaca, or less frequently llama meat, though today it is also very commonly made from sheep), served with white rice.
Rocoto relleno - Arequipa dish made from stuffed rocoto chilis. Rocotos are one of the very hot (spicy) chilis of Peru. In this dish they are stuffed with spiced beek or pork, onions, olives, egg white and then cooked in the oven with potatoes covered with cheese and milk.
CUISINE OF THE JUNGLE
Naturally, jungle cuisine is made using the products local to the area. Although many animal species are hunted for food in the biologically diverse jungle, two standouts are the Paiche (the world's largest freshwater fish) and turtles. Hunting turtles is prohibited in Peru, therefore turtle-based dishes are scarce and expensive and not sold in menu restaurants. Juane, Tacacho.
CUISINE OF LIMA
Ceviche, often spelled "cebiche" in Peru, is the flagship dish of coastal cuisine, and one of Peru's favorites. It is the quintessence of fusion: Andean chili peppers, onions and acidic aromatic lime, of a species imported by the Spanish, though with origins in Northern Africa "limon" in Spanish). A spicy dish, it consists generally of bite-size pieces of white fish (such as corvina or white sea bass), marinated raw in lime or lemon juice mixed with chilis. Ceviche is served with raw onions, boiled sweet potatoes (camote), toasted corn (cancha), and sometimes a local green seaweed yuyo. Leche de tigre (tiger's milk), is the Peruvian colloquial name for the juice produced from the ingredients of ceviche. It has a light spicy flavor and serves as a good reconstituent. Local custom recommends ceviche as a breakfast for sleepwalkers, a hangover cure and as an aphrodisiac. Unlike ceviche from Mexico and Ecuador, it does not have tomatoes, and unlike that of Tahiti it does not use coconut milk, though both are abundant in Peru. A variation available in Callao replaces mango for fish.
Papas a la huancaina (Huancayo-style potatoes), a dish consisting of sliced boiled potatoes, served on a bed of lettuce with a slightly spicy cheese sauce with olives. Even if the name says that it is from Huancayo, it is actually from Chosica, in Lima, made by a "Huancaina" (a person from Huancayo).
Anticuchos are brochettes made from a beef heart marinated in a various Peruvian spices and grilled, often sided with boiled potatoes and corn. They are commonly sold by street vendors and served shish kabob-style, but you may find them in creole food restaurants. They are frequently sold by street vendors.
Chicharrones a dish consisting of deep-fried (in its own fat) and heavily salted pork.
Cau cau is a meal consisting of mondongo or tripe stew and accompanied by rice. This to have African and Chinese influence along Italian.
Escabeche criollo (pickled fish) - "Escabeche" when the word is used alone normally refers to escabeche of fish. Other varieties can use duck or chicken. The escabeche dishes rely in the cooking on the heavy use of vinegar and onions together with other spices and chili.
Aji de gallina (chili chicken) is thin strips of chicken served with a creamy yellow and spicy sauce, made basically with ají amarillo (yellow chilis), cheese, milk, bread, and walnuts. Traditionally from non-laying hens, but today almost exclusvely made from more tender chickens.
Carapulcra is an appetizing stewed dish of pork and chicken, dried potatoes, red chilis, peanuts and cumin. The version from the Afro-Peruvian Ica region uses fresh potatoes.
Causa in its basic form is a mashed yellow potato dumpling mixed with lemon, onion, chili and oil. Varieties can have avocado, chicken, tuna (typically canned) or even shellfish added to the mixture. Also Causa is very popular in Lima which distinguishes this dish by saying Causa Limeña Causa is usually served cold with hard boiled eggs and olives.
Papa Rellena (stuffed potato) - mashed potatoes stuffed with ground (minced) meat, eggs, olives and various spices and then deep fried.
Tamales, boiled corn with meat or cheese and wrapped in a banana leaf. This consists of corn mixed with spices, sugar, onions, filled with pork and olives and finally wrapped in the leaves of corn husks. Tamales are a common breakfast food, often served with "Salsa Criolla." (Slides of onions and limon juice and chili).
Lomo Saltado, sliced beef (if made from the tenderloin it is "lomo fino") sauteed with onion, tomato, soy sauce, vinegar, chili (aji) and served or mixed with French fried potatoes (aka "chips"), and accompanied with rice.
Chupe de camarones (shrimp cioppino) is one of the most popular dishes of Peruvian coastal cuisine. It is made from a thick freshwater shrimp (crayfish) stock soup, potatoes, milk and chili pepper. Regarded as typical from Arequipa (a beautiful southern Andean city in Peru), Chupe de Camarones is regularly found in Peruvian restaurants specialized in Arequipan cuisine.
Tiradito is the younger brother of ceviche, and shows more clearly the influence that Japanese cooks have had in Peru's seafood cuisine (though some suggest that it's closer to Italian carpaccio, popularized by Genovese immigrants). The fish is sliced in fine strips (about 6 cm by 2 cm) that are similar to sashimi, and then marinated in a mix of lime juice, ginger and ají limo. Unlike ceviche, tiradito lacks onions, which translates into a subtler taste.
Arroz con Pollo, or rice with chicken, is enjoyed for its rich-flavored rice combined with chicken. The rice is a little green.
Chifa from the mandarin words "chi fan", meaning 'to eat rice') is the Peruvian term for chinese food (or for a Chinese restaurant). In the 150 years since its arrival in Peru, the Chinese Peruvian culture has revolutionized Peruvian cuisine, gaining international recognition from those who have had the opportunity to sample it while visiting Peru
reflects a fusion by Chinese Peruvians of the products that the Chinese brought with them to those that they found in Peru, and later cultivated themselves. Even some Peruvian dishes such as tacu-tacu, lomo saltado, and arroz chaufa were influenced by the Chinese.
In downtown Lima, on Capon Street, is the barrio chino (Chinatown). The great variety of savory and sweet dishes there, with different types of meats, the following are just a few of the many dishes which are generally popular with the Peruvians. Some of these originated in other parts of Peru but most are well known and can be found in some part of Lima.
Lima has an abundance of Peruvian-style Chinese restaurants or "chifas" as they are known locally; indeed, arroz chaufa or Chinese style rice is one of the frequently sampled dishes that has found its way into Peruvian cuisine.
Alfajores - a common dessert made in several varieties. The basic recipe makes use of a base mix of flour, lemon rind, margarine, and powdered sugar which is then oven-baked. Alfajores consist of two or more layers of this baked pastry, and is usually filled with either manjar blanco (a caramel-colored, sweet, creamy filling made with milk and sugar) or molasses.
Turrones (or nougat) (similar to fudge) are of several varieties. One common variety to be found in Lima is Turrón de Doña Pepa, an anise and honey nougat that is traditionally prepared for the Señor de los Milagros (or Lord of Miracles) procession, during October. Turrones are most commonly made from almonds, and can be found in Spanish-speaking countries all over the world.
Mazamorra morada is a dessert typical of Peru. A variety of purple corn (maiz morado) grows in Peru that colors and adds a particular flavor to the water in which it is boiled. When that water is cooled and chopped fruit, lemon and sugar is added, and the mixture is served as a beverage, its name is "chicha morada”.
Picarones are pumpkin fritters that are also eaten as late-afternoon street food during El Señor de los Milagros celebrations. This is another dish that has its origins in the colonial period. Some believe they are a local adaptation of Spanish buñuelos. Picarones are made of squash or pumpkin dough and sweetened with chancaca, raw cane sugar melted into syrup. It is a good dessert.
SOFT DRINKS AND ALCOHOLIC DRINKS
Coca tea is a hot drink as tea which the only difference is that this hot drink is made from coca leaves.
Inca Kola - the brand of a popular fizzy soda drink (gaseosa), which is a cultural icon, served literally on the most humble to the most exclusive tables nationwide, alone or with any type of food. Yellow in color, it is sweet and refreshing. Some compare its flavor to bubble gum. Inca Kola is the only national beverage in the world that beat worldwide Coca-Cola in sales.
Té of uña de gato. A tea made from a plant from the Amazon, cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), known for its healing or medicinal properties.
Pisco, a kind of brandy, is considered by many to be the national drink of Peru. This distilled beverage made from grapes is produced in various regions of the country.
Pisco Sour is a cocktail made from pisco combined with lemon juice, the white of an egg, sugar and some ice.
Wines come from many different regions of the country, most notably from the Ica Region.
Beer as in many countries is popular in all levels of society. Local brands include Pilsen and Cristal. A couple of regional beers are Arequipeña and Cuzqueña, from Cusco respectively; though Cuzqueña is popular nationwide and is exported worldwide. A common beer drinking ritual among many Peruvian men involves a group sharing one glass. The party holding the bottle waits for the prior person to drink from the glass before receiving that glass, filling it and passing the bottle on to the next in line. While this custom is more common among men of lower echelons of society, people of higher social status, particularly youth and occasionally women, take part in this custom.
Chicha de Jora is another well-known drink, based on different varieties of fermented and different aromatic herbs, depending on the region of the country. Its consumption is mostly limited to the Andes area
Chicha morada a beverage prepared from a base of boiled purple maize to which are added chunks of Pineapple, sugar, and ice as it cools. Do not confuse with the fermented beverage chicha de jora.